Studies in the Modern Ocean

CTD/hydrocast package descending into the Southern Ocean. Photo Kenemy

The CTD/hydrocast package descending into the Southern Ocean water column from the deck of the South African research icebreaker S.A. Agulhas II, sailing from Cape Town to the Antarctic winter ice edge. Photo: Preston Cosslett Kemeny ’15

 

References

6 Publications
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The Younger Dryas cooling 12,700 years ago is one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate records. Annually laminated lake sediments are ideally suited to record the dynamics of such abrupt changes, as the seasonal deposition responds immediately to climate, and the varve counts provide an accurate estimate…
Tropical forests account for one third of terrestrial primary production and contribute significantly to the land carbon sink 1,2. The future of this sink relies critically on forest interactions with nutrient cycles 3-5. Humid montane tropical forests are often thought to be rich in phosphorus, but to contain low levels of bioavailable nitrogen 6…
In piston cores from the open subarctic Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea, diatom-bound δ15N (δ15Ndb), biogenic opal, calcium carbonate, and barium were measured from coretop to the previous glacial maximum (MIS 6). Glacial intervals are generally characterized by high δ15Ndb (∼8‰) and low productivity, whereas interglacial intervals have a lower δ15Ndb…
In a piston core from the central Bering Sea, diatom microfossil-bound N isotopes and the concentrations of Opal, biogenic barium, calcium carbonate, and organic N are measured over the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Compared to the interglacial sections of the core, the sediments of the last ice age are characterized by 3‰ higher diatom-bound…
Phytoplankton in the Antarctic deplete silicic acid (Si(OH)4) to a far greater extent than they do nitrate (NO3-). This pattern can be reversed by the addition of iron which dramatically lowers diatom Si(OH)4:NO3- uptake ratios. Higher iron supply during glacial times would thus drive the Antarctic towards NO3- depletion with excess Si(OH)4…
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world’s largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific…